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  • Oil Refining
  • Petrochemicals
  • Gases
  • Alternative Fuels
  • Water

Direct Coal Liquefaction

Coal reserves are more than ten times more abundant, and are more evenly distributed than oil reserves. To sustain development of mobility, coal may be an alternative source of motor fuels especially in countries with small oil and large coal reserves, as it increases Energy Security and lessens the consequences of crude oil price volatility.

Direct coal liquefaction is suitable for a wide range of feeds:

  • high volatile bituminous coals
  • sub-bituminous coals with low ash
  • lignites with low ash

In 2010, Axens Solutions and Headwaters Incorporated have signed an agreement to form a strategic alliance to provide a single-source solution for producing ultra- clean fuels by direct coal liquefaction (DCL) alone or in combination with refinery residues or biomass.

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