CO₂ Capture Pathways
CO2 Capture consists in extracting the CO2 produced by the largest polluting industries.
To do so, two main carbon capture pathways are available: which are either the post- or pre-combustion pathways. Other solutions exist like Direct Air Capture (DAC) or oxy-fuel combustion but are much less mature with lower TRLs (technology readiness levels).
- The post-combustion pathway focuses on the treatment of flue gases from various industries. On another hand, the pre-combustion pathway refers to the CO2 capture before fuel combustion. In such instance, the fuel is processed with steam or oxygen to produce syngas.
- In post-combustion, one of the available carbon capture technology is the chemical absorption of CO2. It is a more mature solution as compared with physical absorption or other technologies. This kind of technology separates the CO2 from other gases by absorption in a chemical solvent to produce a clean flue gas.
“3D Project”, the pilot Project to demonstrate the capture and storage of CO₂ on an industrial scale
In May 2019, a consortium of 11 European stakeholders including ArcelorMittal, Axens, IFP Energies nouvelles (IFPEN) and TotalEnergies launched a project to demonstrate an innovative process for capturing CO2 from industrial activities—the 3D project (DMX™ Demonstration in Dunkirk).
The pilot, designed by Axens, entered the construction phase in 2020 at the ArcelorMittal steelworks site in Dunkirk with the availability to capture 0.5 metric tons of CO2 an hour from steelmaking gases since 2022.
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